CHAPTER IV.
CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION.1

§ 1. THREE GREAT CLASSES.

BESIDES their common characteristic, consciousness, mental facts have special characteristics which distinguish them from one another and by which they may be divided into great classes. The necessity of this classification is seen in the great multiplicity and variety of these facts. In the beginning of every science, the statement is necessary of the natural knowledge of resemblances and differences, which we may use as a starting-point for investigation. In this classification two great dangers are to be avoided. First, many psychologists, neglecting real resemblances, have made too many divisions or faculties, in a measure dividing the mind into independent principalities and losing sight of the unity of nature which underlies all phenomena of mind. Again, others go to the other extreme in excessive opposition to the "faculty theory," especially in recent years, and fail to recognize essential differences in mental states.

In the main, however, it is agreed that there are three great classes of facts in the mental life, however strongly the attempt to reduce them further may be urged. These three classes express the result of three distinct functions of the mind: Intellect, Feeling, and Will. They may be called: 1st, Presentative, or intellectual states; 2d, Affective, or states of feeling; and 3d, Volitional, or states of will. These great departments of mental fact are shown

____________________
1
Handbook, vol. i. chap. iii

-52-

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