GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MIND.
IN the foregoing chapters the term consciousness has been used without explanation. Familiarity with it in the general significance it bears in ordinary discourse has been assumed. It is necessary, however, at the outset, to inquire more fully into its nature and position in the science.
Definition. Disregarding less important varieties, we may say that two general views of the nature of consciousness prevail among psychologists. On the one hand, it is held that consciousness is itself a capacity, function, or faculty of mind, an inner sense for the perception of the mind and its states, as sight and hearing are outer senses for the perception of body. This view rests upon the fact of reflection, the developed means of observation of inner states, which has, in common with sense-perception, the relation of subject and object within itself; but not upon the original awareness which we have of our first experiences. This latter bears no analogy whatever to external perception. This doctrine of consciousness makes it not essential, but accidental, to mind, an added thing, which may be wanting, as external senses, memory, imagination, may be wanting; and admits the supposition of unconscious mind.____________________