"irregular raids, unfair arrests, illegal trials, excessive punishments, physical
and moral torture, and disappearances."
The fourth measurement might be a political-socioeconomic dialectic. In expanding upon a remark of Venezuelan President Lusinchi, we identify three
stages to help us measure Colombian and Venezuelan developmental patterns
for the remainder of the twentieth century: dictatorship, political democracy and
social democracy. Both countries have emerged from the darkness of military
dictatorship into the light of political democracy. As Plato's allegory of the cave
tells us, however, the light of truth can be painful. The light will become brighter
and more painful for the leadership as they move from elite accommodations of
political democracy toward efforts to realize socioeconomic development of
social democracy. The effort will be difficult but the goal most noble: to alleviate
misery and raise the level of human worth and dignity for the majority of the
Richard B. Craig wrote two very informative articles on the Colombian drug trade.
See "Colombian Narcotics and United States-Colombian Relations", Journal of
InterAmerican Studies and World Affairs 23 ( August 1981):243-70; and "Domestic
Implications of Illicit Colombian Drug Production and Trafficking", Journal of InterAmerican Studies and World Affairs 25 ( August 1983):325-50.
U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Summary, February 1, 1985 -- hereafter referred to as "Strategy Report."
Fox Butterfield, "Dispute Rises in Colombian Drug Extradition Plea", The New
York Times, May 22, 1985.
U.S. Senate, D.C. Asencio testimony before the Permanent Subcommittee on
Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, Illegal Narcotics Profits
( Washington, D.C.: Government Printing office, December 12, 1979). Quoted by Craig, "Colombian Narcotics", p. 258.
Craig, "Domestic Implications", pp. 328-29.
Craig, "Colombian Narcotics", p. 332.
Joseph B. Treaster, "Colombian Troops Are Said to Break Courthouse Siege", The New York Times, November 8, 1985; Joseph B. Treaster, "Colombians Debate
Handling of Siege", The New York Times, November 10, 1985; "Colombian Guerrillas'
Drug Connections Crystalize in Shoot-out", Wall Street Journal, November 15, 1985.
Craig, "Domestic Implications", pp. 338-39.
"Colombia -- Heads Roll in Trafficking Saga", Latin America Weekly Report, February 15, 1985.
Alan Riding, "Drug Abuse Catches Up to Dismayed Colombia", The New York
Times, August 20, 1986.
See also U.S. Department of State,
Jon R. Thomas, Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics Matters, Controlling International Narcotics Production and Trafficking ( Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Public Affairs, March 19, 1985).