and "weapons transfers," "weapons supplies," and "weapons exports" are used interchangeably as the broadest term to describe shipments of major conventional weapons from one country to another, whether directly or through a third party. Other military-related transfers -- personnel equipment, small arms (such as sidearms and rifles), ammunition, grenades and mortar shells, troops, training, advisers, and military construction projects (such as air bases and naval ports), and the transfer of military technology and know-how, including nuclear technology -- will be described as such and are not typically included as major conventional weapons transfers. The term "arms sales" is used to describe transfers where economic gain appears to be a primary motive for the transaction. For abbreviations used throughout the work, please consult the abbreviations list.
The terms "People's Republic of China," "China," and "PRC" are used interchangeably. By and large, the romanization system adopted by the Chinese government in 1979, also known as "pinyin," is used to transliterate Chinese into English, with only one or two exceptions. Thus, the founder of the PRC was Mao Zedong, his principal adviser in foreign affairs was Zhou Enlai, and they ruled from China's capital, Beijing. However, the spiritual father of modern China is referred to by his betterknown name, Sun Yat-sen. Chinese authors and terms in footnotes and in the bibliography retain their English spellings as they appear in the original.