past failures and successes and an understanding that history never repeats itself so exactly as to require the repetition of past formulas. Given the tragic history of the left, the modern-day socialist in America must too often look to the future in spite of the past, transforming mistakes, blunders, and some great moments into important learning experiences. For the forseeable future, or at least until events dictate otherwise, much of the radical's work will be neither romantic nor adventurous. It will involve the slow grind of theoretical clarification and the short-lived excitements of daily struggle. It is to be both reformist and revolutionary--with a difference.