stimulate, nurture, and catalyze efforts at transforming a part of the culture. These new artifacts make the environment different from what it was, an awareness of which is a critical and unique quality of human experience.
Taking the two points together, I have come to the conclusion that genuine, qualitative novel thoughts and ideas do occur. It is possible to make something new under the sun that is not directly a function of the biological potential of the individual. In fact, when one looks around at the results of humanity's efforts to transform the world, it is stunning to reflect on how much of our reality consists of a continuously emerging set of humanly crafted new things. Anyone who argues against development in the sense of true constructed novelty must ignore these manifest fruits of human labor and expression to an amazing degree.
Although I must caution that most of what I have learned is based on my own experience, and is also highly speculative, I know that I did not contrive the typewriter I am using, the chair I am sitting on, or the light that I use to illuminate my office, nor, for that matter, the numerous other things that are being changed in my culture even as I write. To doubt creativity under such circumstances is simply beyond my comprehension.
Bickhard M. H. ( 1979). "On necessary and specific capabilities in evolution and development". Human Development, 22, 217-224.
Campbell R. L., & Bickhard M. H. ( 1986). Knowing levels and developmental stages. Basel: Karger.
Chomsky N. ( 1980). "On cognitive structures and their development". In M. Piattelli-Palmarini (Ed.), Language and learning: The debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky (pp. 35-54). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.