The Quest to Define Collegiate Desegregation: Black Colleges, Title VI Compliance, and Post-Adams Litigation

By M. Christopher Brown | Go to book overview

An Introduction to the Quest

While interpreting and applying Fordice will be arduous for the federal court and the Department of Education, the future of historically black colleges and universities rooted in the desegregation agenda will not go away. . . . The measures used by [former Adams states] serve as a placebo--not a panacea--for many segregative and discriminatory practices.

M. C. Brown, 1995b, p. 30


THE HISTORY AND FACTS

Prior to the American Civil War there were few mainstream educational opportunities for African Americans with the exception of historically black institutions established by abolitionists for nonslaves. With the postwar shift to industrialization, America recognized the need to educate its former slaves and their progeny. However, after decades of significant progress, the races still remained "separate" and their education "unequal."

In 1954, the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ( 347 U.S. 483) overturned the prevailing doctrine of separate but equal introduced by Plessy v. Ferguson ( 163 U.S. 537) fifty-eight years prior. By the time Brown was decided many states had created dual collegiate structures of public education, most of which operated exclusively for Caucasians in one system and African Americans in the other. Although Brown fo-

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The Quest to Define Collegiate Desegregation: Black Colleges, Title VI Compliance, and Post-Adams Litigation
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • An Introduction to the Quest xv
  • 1 - Black Colleges and Desegregation 1
  • 2 - The Unfinished Quest for Compliance 17
  • 3 - Desegregation Litigation Reborn 29
  • 4 - Legal Standards for Compliance 55
  • 5 - Challenges to Compliance 71
  • 6 - Defining Collegiate Desegregation 89
  • Afterword: Racial Balance Versus a Unitary System 107
  • Appendix A: Glossary of Legal Terms 115
  • Appendix B: A Note on Methodology 119
  • Bibliography 137
  • Index 157
  • About the Author *
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