cans saw them in the pages of newspapers and magazines as troublemakers, though not necessarily communists, who threatened public
safety and who refused to abide by the will of Congress. That Hoover
made mistakes in handling public information and that the handling of
the rout reflected poor judgment cannot be disputed. It remains, however, much more of an open question than most Hoover scholars have
conceded as to whether the Bonus March dealt a major blow to the Hoover Administration. The march, though, was a small symbolic event to
Americans of the time, and the episode really made little impact upon
readers and voters already ravaged by depression.
Roger Daniels, The Bonus March ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1971),
pp. 37-39; Donald J. Lisio, The President and Protest: Hoover, Conspiracy, and
the Bonus Riot ( Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1974), pp. 8-9.
Lisio, President and Protest, p. 8; Daniels, Bonus March, pp. 38-40.
Lisio, President and Protest, pp 45-46.
W. W. Waters, B.E.F.: The Whole Stoty of the Bonus Army, 2d ed. ( New
York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969), pp. 1-10.
Daniels, Bonus March, p. 76.
See especially coverage in the Chicago Tribune, St. Louis Post-Dispatch,
The New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Washington Post, Cleveland
Plain Dealer, and Portland Oregonian. The Oregonian paid the Chicago Tribune
for special coverage from its correspondents.
"Troops Balk 'Bonus Army,' " Chicago Tribune, May 24, 1932, p. 1; "If
This Is a Lark, What's a Riot?" Chicago Tribune editorial, May 25, 1932, p. 12.
"Railroad Again Fools Bonus Band, Unhooks Engine", St. Louis PostDispatch, May 23, 1932, p. 1.
"National Guard Ordered to East St. Louis Where 'Bonus Marchers' Seized
a Train", The New York Times, May 24, 1932, p. 1. For other examples of stories
or editorials, see "Veterans Resume March on Capitol", Portland Oregonian, May
25, 1932, p. 1; "Problems of the Bonus Hike", Chicago Daily News editorial, May
28, 1932, p. 10; "Veterans Give Up Freight Cars As Guard Called Out", New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 24, 1932, p. 2; "Veteran Bonus Army Fails in Threat
to Seize Train", Washington Post, May 22, 1932, p. 1; "Bonus Veterans Due in
Capital Next Week", Post, May 25, 1932, p. 1.
See "Washington Police Trail War Veterans" and "Militia Rushed As 300
Vets Capture Train", San Francisco Examiner, May 24, 1932, pp. 1, 2.
Waters, B.E.F., pp. 70-72; Daniels, Bonus March, pp. 87-122; Lisio, President and Protest, pp. 53-62.
Theodore Joslin diary, May 26, 1932, entry, Joslin Papers, Box 10, HHPL.