During the 1980s the proportion of blacks graduating from high school increased, but the proportion of blacks enrolled in college decreased. Black females outnumbered black males in college, but black males outnumbered black females in doctoral degree graduate programs. The proportion of black students needing financial aid to go to college has increased during the same period that federal assistance for higher education decreased, explaining the smaller proportion of college-going blacks during the 1980s, the decade harvesting the largest proportion of black high school graduates in recent decades. Antoine M. Garibaldi presents these data and their effects in the first chapter in this section.
Among the decreasing proportion of black high school graduates who manage to get federally funded grants, the proprietary career school rather than college is increasingly becoming the institution of choice. In his chapter, Robert Rothman informs us that "blacks constitute a disproportionate number of the approximately 1.5 million students in the nearly 6,000 for-profit career schools nationwide." Rothman states that reliable sources have estimated the number of blacks in such schools at one-fifth to one-fourth of all blacks enrolled in postsecondary institutions. These schools offer job-specific training in six months, which appears to give "a quick return on a student's investment." While some observers see this as a positive outcome, others believe that this