Intellectual Property in the Information Age: The Politics of Expanding Ownership Rights

By Debora J. Halbert | Go to book overview

tual property debate a voice of dissent regarding the direction the United States is currently headed.


NOTES
1
B. Badikian, The media monopoly, 4th ed., ( Boston: Beacon Press 1992). In this book, Badikian outlined the trend toward increased centralized ownership of the media. See also: H. Schiller, Culture Inc.: The corporate takeover of public expression ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). Schiller's book is an excellent work focusing on corporate America's hold over cultural artifacts and their display via museums and public art.
2
In 1989, one of Disney's more notorious copyright actions was to force three Hallandale Florida day-care centers to paint over their murals of Disney characters. See: "Disney characters removed; Day-care center follows park's order," The Orange County Register, 3 August 1989, p. A25.
3
See chapter 6 where the writing of Helene Cixous is discussed.
4
OTA report on intellectual property rights in an age of electronics and information: Joint hearing of the subcommittee on patents, copyrights, and trademarks of the senate committee on the judiciary and the subcommittee on courts, civil liberties, and the administration of justice of the house committee on the judiciary, 99th Cong., 2nd Session ( 16 April 1986). Testimony by the Graphic Artists Guild Regarding Receipt of the Report of the Office of Technology Assessment, 91.
5
Walt Disney is a classic example. Disney ensured that his cartoonists remained anonymous, were paid hourly and usually small wages, and that his name figured prominently in all productions even though he never drew a cartoon. Although Disney was (and his company still is) a vociferous litigator when someone infringed on his work, he made sure that the authors were emotionally removed from their creations. David Kunzle, writing the introduction to the English Edition of Dorfman and Mattelart How to Read Donald Duck made this clear:

The system at Disney Productions seems to be designed to prevent the artist from feeling any pride, or gaining any recognition, other than corporate, for his work. Once the contract is signed, the artist's idea becomes Disney's idea. He is its owner, therefore its creator, for all purposes. It says so, black and white, in the contract: "all art work prepared for our comics magazines is considered work done for hire, and we are the creators thereof for all purposes." There could hardly be a clearer statement of the manner in which the capitalist engrosses the labor of his workers. In return for a small fee or wage, he takes from them both the profit and the glory. . . . While the world applauds Disney, it is left in ignorance of those whose work is the cornerstone of his empire: of the immensely industrious, prolific and inventive Ub Iwerks, whose technical and artistic innovations run from the multi-plane camera to the character of Mickey himself; . . . And of course, Carl Barks, creator of Uncle Scrooge and many other favorite "Disney" characters, of over 300 of the best "Disney" comics stories, of 7,000 pages of "Disney" artwork paid at an average $11.50 per page, not one signed with his name; while his employers, trying carefully to keep him ignorant of the true extent of this astonishing

-159-

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Intellectual Property in the Information Age: The Politics of Expanding Ownership Rights
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Notes xvi
  • 1 - The Historical Construction of Copyright 1
  • Notes 19
  • 2 - Controlling Technology: Political Narratives of Copyright 25
  • Notes 45
  • 3 - Controlling Technology: Legal Narratives of Copyright 49
  • Notes 70
  • 4 - International Piracy: Finding External Intellectual Property Threats 77
  • Notes 94
  • 5 - Hackers: the Construction of Deviance in the Information Age 101
  • Notes 114
  • 6 - Authors in the Information Age 121
  • Notes 138
  • 7 - The Future of Intellectual Property Law 141
  • Notes 159
  • Bibliography 165
  • Index 181
  • About the Author *
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