The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine

By Walter J. Friedlander | Go to book overview
21.
Pritchard J. B., ed. Ancient Near East Texts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1958, pp. 76-80.
22.
Jastrow M. The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria. 1915. Reprinted: New York. Benjamin Blom, 1971, p. 200.
23.
Allatu (Ereshkigal), Ea, Gibil (Giru), Ishtar, Marduk, Nabû (Nebo), Ninib (Ninurta), Nusku, Swpanîtum, Shamash and Sin. (Jayne W. A. The Healing Gods of Ancient Civilization. New Haven: Yale University, 1925, p. 118.).
24.
Jastrow, Civilizations, p. 243.
25.
Ibid., p. 206.
26.
De F. J. M. Waele The Magic Staff or Rod in Greco-Italian Antiquity. The Hague: (publisher not given), 1927, p. 43.
27.
Lyttelton M. (Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, the British Museum). Personal communication, May 1978.
28.
Shelley P. B. "Homer's Hymn to Mercury," XC. In: Selected Poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Edited by H. Bloom, New York: Signet, 1966, p. 404.
29.
"4. To Hermes,"530. In: Homeric Hymns. Translated by A. N. Anthanassakis , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1976, p. 45.
30.
"4. To Hermes,"532. In: The Homeric Hymns. Translated by T. Sargent , New York: W. W. Norton, 1973, p. 44.
31.
Whittick R. Symbols, Signs, and Their Meaning. London: Leonard Hill, 1960, plate XXXV.
32.
There is certainly the possibility that the 8-shaped caduceus may have appeared in Phoenicia before Greece. Count Goblet d'Alviella wrote: "We are forced to wonder with M. Perrot 'whether the caduceus was borrowed by the Phoenicians from Greece and its Hermes, or whether the latter did not rather appropriate this attribute from some eastern god, his elder by many centuries.'" ( d'Alviella, Migration of Symbols, pp. 226-27).
33.
Harrison J. E. "The Judgement of Paris: Two Unpublished Vases in the Graeco-Etruscan Museum in Florence," J. Hellenic Stud. 1886, 7:196-219.
34.
The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1974.
35.
Some of the early snake-headed caducei have been described as having the snakes knotted together. The illustrations I have studied are often not clear enough to see whether or not the serpents are joined by means of a knot.

-29-

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The Golden Wand of Medicine: A History of the Caduceus Symbol in Medicine
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Medical Studies ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures ix
  • Foreword xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Note 3
  • 2 - Definition of the Caduceus 5
  • Notes 12
  • 3 - Development of the Structure of the Caduceus 13
  • Notes 29
  • 4 - Hermes 31
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Egyptian Hermes 61
  • Notes 81
  • 6 - Caduceus in Medicine: Sixteenth Through Nineteenth Centuries 83
  • 7 - Caduceus as a Printer's Mark 109
  • 8 - U. S. Army's Medical Department Adopts the Caduceus 127
  • Notes 144
  • 9 - Present 145
  • Notes 154
  • 10 - Summary 155
  • Appendix I Persistence of Confusion About Hermes 159
  • Notes 165
  • Appendix II History of the American Medical Association's Official Symbol 167
  • Notes 169
  • Selected Bibliography 171
  • Index 175
  • About the Author 183
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