of society. This indoctrination was one of schooling's most important functions in the nineteenth century.
To summarize, many of the organizational forms and practices of public schools were in existence in the 1800s and earlier. The pressing concerns associated with schooling pauper children, the high costs of educating the children of the common folk had lost none of their immediacy in the twentieth century. Structures persisted, now obvious, now less so, forming rigid practices that shaped the ever-larger urban school districts. Education continued to be an onerous, unpleasant experience for most youngsters; the inflexible routines and punishment syndromes survived in spite of the changes wrought by new generations of students and technological revolutions. Authoritarianism continued to dominate the organizational practices of urban schools. Education could no longer resist or deny the demands of overcrowded, impersonal institutions; it could not escape from its past history and culture as long as the individual student was denied his worth and capabilities and submerged in an impersonal organizational ethos in order to improve the efficiency of indoctrination efforts and the cost-efficiency of the system.