delinquents in age-graded, prison schools. The meanings reformers gave to poverty, the importance they attached to education as a need for all children, and all the ethical values attached to the preparation and performance of productive labor defined the kind of educational experiences children would have in common schools and reformatories. Education was, thus, made to serve the needs and interests of an increasingly rationalized and mechanistic society. Not so many years earlier, that society had basked in an agrarian culture and philosophy with an endless frontier before it. In Thomas Jefferson, in Lewis and Clark, in the endless possibilities of life in the New World could be found the basis for the emerging U.S. culture, but in less than a generation, schooling and work had been mechanized, and in the urban centers, immigrant and poor workers huddled together in increasing misery and despair.