those whose children were pushed out in the previous methods of appraisal.
The forces of school reform had converged their efforts on the problems of governance, cost-effectiveness, and accountability during the nineteenth century. An entire system devoted to stigmatizing pauper boys originally sought to economize and standardize schoolwork while supporting the infamous Lancastrian schools. A lack of tolerance between the propertied classes and the growing immigrant and urban poor led to the establishment of these schools and to severe regimentation and punishment practices. The common schools then emerged from the ashes of these charity schools, crowding children into congested schools and tightly controlling their bodily movements and their thoughts. Their social backgrounds were disparaged and their languages and cultures demeaned. At the end of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, the pedagogic practices of rote learning and military discipline still dominated classroom life.