The need to assure homogeneous and orthodox schoolwork forces educational systems to move toward standardized training for both teachers and their students. Standardized curriculums, pedagogic methods, and tests are used to measure students against one another. The tools of teaching that the educational system uses are not only aids in the performance of pedagogic action but also ways of limiting the goals, perspectives, and content of classroom work. Textbooks, syllabuses, manuals all have the effect of unifying what is taught in different classrooms by different teachers. The need to codify and systematize the pedagogic communication and urban school culture is conditioned by the demands for homogeneity and orthodoxy in increasingly strained, mass societies. All learning in urban educational systems is done within the framework of an essentially apprenticeship system in which the student is socialized out of his/her ignorant condition over a period of many years. This binds the graduates, teachers, and students to the educational system and to the economic and social system.
The institutionalization of modern pedagogic action is characterized by obsessive concern with reproduction. 29 There is an inadequacy of research training and inquiry methods up and down the grade system. There is a programming of the norms of research and the objects of inquiry is that the interests of the status quo are served. Modern educational systems are relatively autonomous institutions, monopolizing the legitimate use of symbolic violence and serving groups or classes whose cultural arbitrariness they reproduce.