Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal

By Theodore R. Sarbin; Ralph M. Carney et al. | Go to book overview

2
The Enemy Within: A Social History of Treason

Ralph M. Carney

Treason, foule Treason, Villaine, Traitor, Slave

Richard II (act V, scene ii)

Betrayal is part and parcel of social life. It is a shadow of trust and loyalty, and as social beings we have always been wary of being betrayed, either personally or at the societal level. Treason is betrayal on a large scale. It has been a concern of societies since antiquity and is universally condemned. It is the most heinous of crimes and is met with the strongest censure. Usually, the traitor is publicly shamed, executed, and stripped of civil identity. The meaning of the ritual is quite clear. The betrayal of countrymen violates the sacred agreements of society and cannot be mitigated.

Given the important role of treason in society, it is surprising that social science has only recently turned attention to the behaviors associated with treason, that is, betrayal and treachery. Akerstrom ( 1989) is working on the sociology of treachery, and Jones ( 1989) is investigating the psychology of betrayal. Other than these efforts, most discussions about treason are to be found in legal texts and historical chronicles. These sources generally describe political contexts of treason and the legal mechanisms developed to bring traitors to trial but offer little insight into other social characteristics of treason.

The purpose of the present chapter is to draw on the same body of legal and historical literature to sketch out the social context of treason. The

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Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Enemy Within: a Social History of Treason 19
  • Notes 38
  • 3 - A History of Recent American Espionage 39
  • Notes 66
  • 4: Models of Espionage 69
  • 5 - The Mask of Integrity 93
  • 6 - Criminological Approach to Security Violations 107
  • Notes 125
  • 7 - Trade Secret Theft as an Analogue to Treason 127
  • 8 - The Temptations of Espionage: Self-Control and Social Control 143
  • 9 - Work Organizations as Contexts for Trust and Betrayal 163
  • Notes 187
  • References 189
  • Index 203
  • About the Contributors 211
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