Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal

By Theodore R. Sarbin; Ralph M. Carney et al. | Go to book overview

control so that only what is necessary to safeguard gets classified and attempts to make security clearance programs more relevant to today's circumstances should be useful. In a time of blessedly declining military threat, the temptations of industrial espionage may overshadow the need to protect strategic information. Recommended changes in security systems depend on funding levels and on the will to insist on their being carried through, and these need constant budgetary renewals, which are difficult to achieve in a democracy that demands a new consensus for each action. The cynicism, materialism, self-preoccupation, and amorality that American spies of the 1980s demonstrated, however, were a warning that something was missing in the social context, which some renewal deeper than that of the next funding cycle will need to supply.


NOTES
1.
There appears to be no one source for data on cases of espionage by Americans. Summaries from various official and public lists suggest that on average there were two or three cases a year in the United States, in some years none, in others four or five, until the early 1980s, when the numbers increased slightly, then dramatically in 1983 and 1984.
2.
This model is an adaptation of a cognitive model of espionage development by Dr. Howard Timm and extended by comments from other colleagues at the Defense Personnel Security Research Center. I am grateful to Dr. Timm for permission to adapt his model for my purposes here.
3.
The National Intelligence Book Center, 1700 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20006.
4.
This statement reflects my reading of case files and interviews with two serious students of American espionage, David J. Crawford and Robert Morris, who confirm my impression of this pattern of interest.
5.
Among the cases that followed this pattern are those of Edwin G. Moore II, a retired CIA employee who stored ten boxes of classified materials at his home for three years before trying to contact the Soviets in 1976; Jay Clyde Wolff, who held his cache of copies documents for two years after his discharge from the U.S. Navy in 1982; and Allen John Davies, who waited two years after leaving the air force with a grudge against allegedly unfair treatment before contacting the Soviets in 1986. For summaries of these and many other recent cases, see the unclassified report from the Department of Defense Security Institute, "Recent Espionage Cases" ( 1987, pp. 2, 11, 18).
6.
Executive Order 10450, April 27, 1953, 18 F.R. 2489; the Eisenhower program was closely based on the Truman program that had been in place for six years. Both stressed loyalty of employees as the goal. See Lewy ( 1983, p. 5).
7.
See Crawford ( 1988, pp. 107-112, 144-146, 164-168) for summaries of three air force cases in which the craving for adventure was part of the motivation.
8.
I am grateful to Carson Eoyang for the suggestion about the negativism of current patriotism.
9.
Security clearance investigations are not centralized; rather, responsibility for them resides with at least seven different agencies: the Defense Investigative Service

-66-

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Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Enemy Within: a Social History of Treason 19
  • Notes 38
  • 3 - A History of Recent American Espionage 39
  • Notes 66
  • 4: Models of Espionage 69
  • 5 - The Mask of Integrity 93
  • 6 - Criminological Approach to Security Violations 107
  • Notes 125
  • 7 - Trade Secret Theft as an Analogue to Treason 127
  • 8 - The Temptations of Espionage: Self-Control and Social Control 143
  • 9 - Work Organizations as Contexts for Trust and Betrayal 163
  • Notes 187
  • References 189
  • Index 203
  • About the Contributors 211
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