Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal

By Theodore R. Sarbin; Ralph M. Carney et al. | Go to book overview

5
The Mask of Integrity

Robert Hogan and Joyce Hogan


INTRODUCTION

Although the past 10 years may not have been a more iniquitous period in American public life than the preceding 220 years, the recent period does seem to have generated considerable concern about ethical issues. Insider trading on Wall Street, bank fraud, public perfidy, televangelist philandering, abuse of presidential power, industrial greed, and military espionage, if not more frequent, have certainly been better reported recently. American business has responded by using integrity tests to creen entry-level personnel; although this may be a good idea in principle, the persons who are best situated to exploit a company's or a nation's resources are located at the top, not the bottom, of organizations. Screening entry-level employees may be useful, but a bigger impact on corporate problems might be made if upper management is screened for undesirable qualities. Standard integrity measures will be useless in such an effort because good managers are creative and flexible, and creative people receive low scores on conventional measures of integrity. Standard integrity measures, therefore, will tend to screen creative persons out of organizations, and these are the persons who normally provide the vision, the strategy, and the perspective that give an organization its competitive advantage.

Although lack of integrity in an organization can be manifested in a variety of ways, law enforcement, government security agencies, and the military seem especially concerned about persons who may sell or give

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Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Enemy Within: a Social History of Treason 19
  • Notes 38
  • 3 - A History of Recent American Espionage 39
  • Notes 66
  • 4: Models of Espionage 69
  • 5 - The Mask of Integrity 93
  • 6 - Criminological Approach to Security Violations 107
  • Notes 125
  • 7 - Trade Secret Theft as an Analogue to Treason 127
  • 8 - The Temptations of Espionage: Self-Control and Social Control 143
  • 9 - Work Organizations as Contexts for Trust and Betrayal 163
  • Notes 187
  • References 189
  • Index 203
  • About the Contributors 211
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