Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal

By Theodore R. Sarbin; Ralph M. Carney et al. | Go to book overview

6
Criminological Approach to Security Violations

Theodore R. Sarbin

The criminological approach to understanding deviant conduct is different from standard approaches drawn from psychology and psychiatry. These disciplines have taken as their point of departure the postulate that current behavior is transitively related to past behavior, to early acquired dispositions, or to genetic propensities. The prime implication of this approach is that persons are abstract entities, separated from their histories and milieus. Because criminology is a multidisciplinary field of study and draws its energy from many sources -- sociology, law, politics, and police science as well as psychology and psychiatry -- the perspective is guided by attention to context. In this respect, the criminologist investigating the parameters of espionage is similar to the novelist: Both envisage the actor making choices in historically conditioned contexts.

Another way of pointing to the differences between the standard approach and the contextualist orientation is to highlight the perception of the offender. In the traditional mode, offenders are seen as passive entities at the mercy of their environments, their child-rearing, their genes, their physiology, their personalities, or their body types. In the criminological mode, offenders are perceived as reasoning, decision-making persons, their conduct being the product of reasoned action. The chief methodological implication of these differences is in providing guidance to the research investigator. In employing the traditional framework, the investigator focuses on the background of the offender; in the criminological framework, the investigator follows the implications of the contextualist perspective and directs his search to the foreground of the criminal act. Thus,

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Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Enemy Within: a Social History of Treason 19
  • Notes 38
  • 3 - A History of Recent American Espionage 39
  • Notes 66
  • 4: Models of Espionage 69
  • 5 - The Mask of Integrity 93
  • 6 - Criminological Approach to Security Violations 107
  • Notes 125
  • 7 - Trade Secret Theft as an Analogue to Treason 127
  • 8 - The Temptations of Espionage: Self-Control and Social Control 143
  • 9 - Work Organizations as Contexts for Trust and Betrayal 163
  • Notes 187
  • References 189
  • Index 203
  • About the Contributors 211
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