Access to the primary literature and its surrogates is mainly through indexes and categorized collectaneas (such as those of patent offices). Access is currently limited for several reasons: No library or collection has all of the material related to a given subject; interloan is slow, usually requiring more than twenty- four hours; about half of the technical material is in languages other than English; related data, conclusions, explanations, procedures, interpretations, hypotheses, intentions, admonitions, and advocacy are scattered among library materials; secrecy (business, industrial, military, political, and personal) limits access. Another limitation is search. Few researchers, developers, and scholars, for example, are prepared to deal effectively with the array of media and with the complexities of search and of its strategy. Researchers and others have enough to do to keep up in their subject fields without learning about media, terminals, and their use. Librarians and computer- search formulators have become necessary intermediaries in search. Often their lack of knowledge of the discipline and of the specific subject searched causes the searcher to question the competence of formulators and librarians, and to fail to explore suitable cooperative arrangements in which the librarian or search specialist contributes his knowledge of the media and of access to it, while the searcher contributes his specialized subject background and his knowledge of the discipline.