Dwight D. Eisenhower: Soldier, President, Statesman

By Joann P. Krieg | Go to book overview

to eliminate any prior consent loopholes in the resolution is notable considering the later and continuing conflicts in executive-congressional relations over the war powers.

The position of Israel was quite different from that of either of its two European allies in the Suez War. Israel had acted under mounting threats and attacks against its vital national interests and not the essentially colonial interests that motivated Britain and France. It was therefore logical that Israel would resist withdrawal without guarantees and that its friends in the Senate would support its position under the circumstances.

Finally, the President's backing of Dulles in this policy area "from top to bottom" gave the forceful Secretary of State greater strength in dealing with the Congress. Yet, congressional influence was surely demonstrated in the development of the Eisenhower Doctrine.


NOTES
1.
John C. Campbell, Defense of the Middle East: Problems of American Policy, rev. ed. ( New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960), p. 33.
2.
The Fulbright and Connally Resolutions are examined in Philip J. Briggs, "Congress and Collective Security: The Resolutions of 1943," World Affairs 132, No. 4 ( 1970): 332-44.
3.
Robert Engler, The Politics of Oil: A Study of Private Power and Democratic Directions ( New York: Macmillan Co., 1961), p. 209.
4.
Dulles' central role in the formulation of American foreign policy and the Formosa Resolution are examined in Philip J. Briggs, "Congress and the Cold War: U.S.-China Policy, 1955," China Quarterly, No. 85 ( 1981): 80-95.
5.
Washington, D.C., The White House, Minutes and Agenda of the Cabinet, November 16, 1956, and March 29, 1957.
6.
Congressional Quarterly, Inc., The Middle East: U.S. Policy, Israel, Oil and the Arabs, A Contemporary Affairs Report, 4th ed. ( Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1979), p. 37.
7.
Moshe Sharett, Yeoman Ishi (Personal Diary) ( Tel-Aviv: Sifriyat Maariv, 1980), Vol. 4, pp. 1180-88, as cited in Avi Shlaim, "Conflicting Approaches to Israel's Relations with the Arabs: Ben-Gurion and Sharett, 1953-1956," Middle East Journal 37, No. 2 ( 1983): 193.
8.
David Ben-Gurion, Israel: A Personal History ( Tel-Aviv: American Israel Publishing Co., 1971), p. 449.
9.
Chester L. Cooper, The Lion's Last Roar: Suez, 1956 ( New York: Harper and Row, 1978), p. 95. Cooper was an assistant to Central Intelligence Agency Director Allen Dulles. Beginning in 1955, he acted as liaison between the American and British analytical intelligence services.
10.
Cooper, The Lion's Last Roar, p. 94.
11.
Congressional Record 103 ( 1957): 14706; Cooper, The Lion's Last Roar, p. 96.
12.
See Briggs, "Congress and the Cold War," pp. 90-94: Cooper, The Lion's Last Roar, p. 95.
13.
Ambassador Abba Eban, recorded interview, Rehovot, Israel, May 28, 1964, John Foster Dulles Oral History Project, Princeton University Library, pp. 30-31.

-267-

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