Historical Dictionary of the 1960s

By Samuel Freeman; James S. Olson | Go to book overview

B

BA GIA, BATTLE OF (1965). Between 1954 and 1965, the purpose of U.S. military advisors in Vietnam had been to train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and prepare it for battle against Vietcong* and North Vietnamese forces. The Battle of Ba Gia in 1965 demonstrated how futile that effort had been. On May 29, 1965, near the hamlet of Ba Gia in Quang Ngai, more than 1,000 Vietcong troops attacked three ARVN battalions. The ARVN troops panicked and fled the battlefield, leaving behind their weapons. It took U.S. forces to dislodge the Vietcong from Ba Gia. The Vietcong then retook the hamlet a month later. Even though ARVN General Nguyen Chanh Thi had his own troops ready to reattack, he had them stand by and asked the U.S. Marines to do the job. Ba Gia was one of several critical battles in the spring of 1965 that convinced officials in the Lyndon Johnson* administration that ARVN would not be able to hold its own against Communist forces. The United States would have to take over the war.

REFERENCE: Shelby M. Stanton, The Rise and Fall of an American Army: U.S. Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1965- 1973, 1985.

BAEZ, JOAN. Joan Baez was born January 9, 1941, in Staten Island, New York. Her father took a position as a professor of physics at Harvard University in 1957, and the family moved to Boston. Joan Baez was a child musical prodigy, and after settling in Boston, she became fascinated with folk music. She had a beautiful soprano voice and began singing folk music in Boston coffeehouses. After several brilliant performances at the Newport Music Festival in 1959 and 1960, she signed a recording contract and made several best-selling albums between 1960 and 1964.

As the civil rights movement* and the antiwar movement* gained momentum in the 1960s, Baez also acquired a national political reputation. She was a political liberal who was committed to peace, disarmament, and racial equality, all

-35-

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Historical Dictionary of the 1960s
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A 1
  • B 35
  • C 83
  • D 125
  • E 145
  • F 161
  • G 184
  • H 212
  • I 239
  • J 246
  • K 254
  • L 272
  • M 284
  • N 317
  • O 347
  • P 359
  • Q 378
  • R 379
  • S 402
  • T 437
  • U 455
  • V 460
  • W 470
  • X 487
  • Y 488
  • Z 490
  • Chronology of the 1960s 493
  • Selected Bibliography 507
  • Index 527
  • About the Contributors 545
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