Historical Dictionary of the 1960s

By Samuel Freeman; James S. Olson | Go to book overview

M

MACARTHUR, DOUGLAS. Douglas MacArthur was born on an army base near Little Rock, Arkansas, on January 26, 1880. He came from a distinguished American military family. After graduating from West Point in 1903, he saw action in Mexico and the Philippines and was assigned to the Rainbow Division during World War I. He made general in 1930, and five years later he was assigned to the Philippines. MacArthur was in Manila when Japan attacked Pearl harbor and the Philippines in December 1941. President Franklin D. Roosevelt named him commander-in-chief of U.S. army forces in the Pacific. After the war, President Harry Truman named MacArthur to command U.S. occupation forces in Japan, and in that position the general created a democratic government for Japan and built the foundation for economic revival there.

When North Korea attacked South Korea in 1950, MacArthur was named commander of United Nations forces. In 1951, however, Truman relieved him of his command for insubordination because MacArthur had refused to endorse the president's definition of the war as a "limited conflict." MacArthur then retired. Early in the 1960s, MacArthur repeatedly warned President John F. Kennedy* that the United States should not become involved in a protracted guerrilla war in Southeast Asia. Kennedy heeded the advice, but President Lyndon Johnson* did not. MacArthur died on April 5, 1964, just three weeks after the United States deployed regular combat troops to South Vietnam.

REFERENCE: William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur, 1880- 1964, 1978.

MADDOX, LESTER. Lester Maddox was born in Atlanta, Georgia, September 30, 1915. Maddox ran a prosperous chicken restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia, and he headed a local white racist group known as Georgians Unwilling to Surrender (GUTS). A close associate of many Ku Klux Klan members, Maddox denounced the civil rights movement* and demanded that whites make sure that blacks

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Historical Dictionary of the 1960s
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A 1
  • B 35
  • C 83
  • D 125
  • E 145
  • F 161
  • G 184
  • H 212
  • I 239
  • J 246
  • K 254
  • L 272
  • M 284
  • N 317
  • O 347
  • P 359
  • Q 378
  • R 379
  • S 402
  • T 437
  • U 455
  • V 460
  • W 470
  • X 487
  • Y 488
  • Z 490
  • Chronology of the 1960s 493
  • Selected Bibliography 507
  • Index 527
  • About the Contributors 545
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