U.S. Department of State: A Reference History

By Elmer Plischke | Go to book overview

influenced and constrained by such factors as congressional legislation, the direction, foreign relations interests, partisanship, and turnover of Presidents, the qualities and experience of the Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries of State, and the attendant political and policy considerations, financing, and nepotism.

Nevertheless, a goodly number of able individuals were appointed to administrative, diplomatic, and consular positions. Some of them served creditably both in the Department and abroad, and many remained in service for lengthy periods and became genuine professionals. Whereas the Department, its staff, and the Diplomatic and Consular Services had their functional and personnel weaknesses, as a whole they were maturing into an agency attuned to the demands of active promotion of American policies and interests abroad as the United States moved into the twentieth century and approached the era of World War I.


NOTES
1
Sequentially, these additional States included West Virginia ( 1863), Nevada ( 1864), Nebraska ( 1867), Colorado ( 1876), Montana ( 1889), North Dakota ( 1889), South Dakota ( 1889), Washington ( 1889), Idaho ( 1890), Wyoming ( 1890), Utah ( 1896), Oklahoma ( 1907), Arizona ( 1912), and New Mexico ( 1912). No additional States were added until 1959, when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted into the Union.
2
The office of Attorney General was established by law in September 1789. The Attorney General headed the Department of Justice when it was created in 1870.
3
In 1913 Congress divided this department into separate Departments of Commerce and Labor, each headed by a Secretary.
4
The economic depressions occurred in 1866, 1873, 1882, 1890, 1900, and 1907. The major tariff legislation included the McKinley ( 1889), Wilson ( 1894), Dingley ( 1897), and Payne-Aldrich ( 1909) Tariff Acts. These were followed in 1913 by the Underwood Tariff.
5
The Olney Corollary boasted: "Today the United States is practically sovereign on this continent [the Western Hemisphere], and its fiat is law upon the subjects to which it confines its interposition."

The Roosevelt Corollary stipulated that Latin American countries that conducted themselves responsibly, maintained order, and paid their debts could count on American friendship, but if they were guilty of impotence and chronic wrongdoing, foreign intervention might become necessary.

6
The Open Door notes of 1899 and 1900, sent by the United States to Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, Japan, and Italy, were intended to serve the interests of Americans in China and to preserve Far Eastern peace. They were devised by William W. Rockhill, an "old China hand" who was the Far Eastern adviser of Secretary of State John Hay, for presentation to President McKinley, and they were transmitted to the foreign governments by Secretary Hay. They helped to establish and maintain an "Open Door" commercial policy in China.
7
President Theodore Roosevelt was credited with endorsing the slogan "speak softly and carry a big stick" in U.S. relations with Latin America.
8
Beginning with the Civil War but expanded in the following half century, sup-

-255-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
U.S. Department of State: A Reference History
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 763

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.