Groups, Teams, and Social Interaction: Theories and Applications

By A. Paul Hare | Go to book overview

12
Combined Analysis: Conformity and Creativity in Negotiations

Social psychologists for the past ninety years have been wondering why people conform to group norms and how they could be creative in solving problems. The research that focuses on the issue of conformity includes the work of Sherif ( 1935), Asch ( 1955), Kelman ( 1958), Jahoda ( 1956), Milgram ( 1963), and Lifton ( 1961). The research that focuses on creative problem solving, especially through bargaining and negotiation includes the work of Follett ( 1924), Deutsch ( 1973), Fisher and Ury ( 1978), Burton ( 1979), and Pruitt ( 1983). The two streams of research actually complement each other, although few social psychologists study both, since to be creative one must be willing to break with existing norms to recombine or redefine old elements in new ways, or to provide some entirely new set of understandings about elements and relationships in a "paradigm shift." 1

Most of the emphasis in research on creative problem solving has been placed on finding well-motivated and nonconforming individuals or establishing conditions in a group that facilitate a creative exchange rather than on the content of the creative act or on the level of creativity achieved. For example, McClelland ( 1961) suggests that the individual should be high on a need for achievement. Barron ( 1969) adds that in addition to being intelligent the person must be a nonconformist. Doob ( 1970) and Kelman and Cohen ( 1979) recommend the "problem-solving workshop" as a way of bringing people of diverse points of view together to find solutions to problems involving conflicts of interests.

If we wish to step back from our preoccupation with negotiations in relatively small groups and look with the anthropologists at larger units of

This paper was originally presented at a meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Amsterdam, 1986. Reprinted from Israel Social Science Research, 4, no. 2 ( 1986): 21-33.

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Groups, Teams, and Social Interaction: Theories and Applications
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments iv
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Part I - Groups and Teams 1
  • 1 - Basic Concepts 3
  • 2 - Characteristics of Groups and Teams 15
  • Note 21
  • 3 - Group and Team Development 23
  • 4 - Problem Solving and Consensus 31
  • Note 43
  • 5 - Managing Conflict 45
  • 6 - Consultation: Diagnosis and Planning 53
  • Notes 64
  • 7 - Team Building with Symlog 65
  • Part II - Theories of Social Interaction and Applications 89
  • 8 - Functional Analysis 91
  • 9 - Dramaturgical Analysis: Intergrop Relations in Israel 97
  • 10 - Exchange Analysis 113
  • 11 - Symlog Analysis 125
  • 12 - Combined Analysis: Conformity and Creativity in Negotiations 143
  • Notes 155
  • References 157
  • Name Index 171
  • Subject Index 177
  • About the Author 178
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