The authors and publisher are grateful to the following for allowing the use of excerpts from:
Hellweg, S. A., and Phillips, S. L. 1981. Form and substance: A comparative analysis of five formats used in the 1980 presidential debates. Speaker and Gavel, 18, 67-76. Reprinted with permission. Speaker and Gavel is a publication of Delta Sigma Rho-Tau Kappa Alpha.
Martel M. 1983. Political campaign debates: Images, strategies, and tactics. New York: Longman. Reprinted with permission.
Pfau M. 1990. A channel approach to television influence. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34, 195-214. Reprinted with permission. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media is a publication of the Broadcast Education Association.
Pfau M., and Kang J. G. 1991. The impact of relational messages on candidate influence in televised political debates. Communication Studies, 42, 114-28. Reprinted with permission. Communication Studies is a publication of the Central States Communication Association.
Reprinted by permission of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT, from Rhetorical Studies of National Political Debates, 1960-1988 edited by Friedenberg R. V. Copyright © by Robert V. Friedenberg. Reprinted with permission.