Significant Contemporary American Feminists: A Biographical Sourcebook

By Jennifer Scanlon | Go to book overview

SHIRLEY CHISHOLM
(1924-)

Frederick J. Simonelli

Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was born in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, New York, on November 30, 1924, to Charles Christopher and Ruby Seale St. Hill, immigrants from Barbados in the West Indies. At the age of four Chisholm was sent to live with her grandmother in rural Barbados, where she attended Vauxhall Coeducational School. Reunited with her parents in New York in 1933, Chisholm continued her education in the New York public school system, graduating from Girls' High School in 1942. Chisholm's academic promise brought offers of scholarships from Vassar College and Oberlin College, but family financial constraints compelled her to stay closer to home. That fall Chisholm enrolled at Brooklyn College, where she graduated cum laude with a bachelor's degree in sociology in 1946. While at Brooklyn College Chisholm's social, racial, political, and feminist consciousness developed as she became an active member in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Urban League, the League of Women Voters, the Bedford- Stuyvesant Political League, and the Seventeenth Assembly District Democratic Club. While at Brooklyn College she also married Conrad Chisholm, a social service investigator, whom she divorced in 1977.

Following graduation from college, Chisholm's interest in child development and child welfare issues matured during the seven years she worked as a teacher's aide at the Mount Calvary Child Care Center in Harlem. During those years she also pursued graduate studies at Columbia University. In 1952, Chisholm received a master's degree in early childhood education from Columbia and took the position of nursery school director at the Friend in Need Nursery School in Brooklyn. Recognizing the value of bilingualism in a multicultural community, Chisholm worked to become fluent in Spanish. Within a year she accepted the directorship of the larger Hamilton-Madison Child Care Center. By 1959 Chisholm's expertise in her field was widely recognized, and she accepted an appoint-

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Significant Contemporary American Feminists: A Biographical Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • Bella Abzug (1920-1998) 1
  • Paula Gunn Allen (1939-) 8
  • Gloria AnzaldÚa (1942-) 14
  • Frances Beale (1940-) 22
  • Rita Mae Brown (1944-) 28
  • Charlotte Bunch (1944-) 36
  • Pat Califia (1954-) 44
  • Judy Chicago (1939-) 51
  • Shirley Chisholm (1924-) 55
  • Esther Ngan-Ling Chow (1943-) 60
  • Pearl Cleage (1948-) 66
  • Kate Clinton (1945- ) 73
  • Mary Daly (1928- ) 79
  • Angela Davis (1944-) 86
  • Shulamith Firestone (1945-) 98
  • Jo Freeman (1945-) 104
  • Betty Friedan (1921-) 111
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1933-) 118
  • Bell Hooks (1952- ) 125
  • Dolores Huerta (1930-) 133
  • June Jordan (1936-) 138
  • Evelyn Fox Keller (1936-) 145
  • Florynce Kennedy (1916-) 150
  • Audre Lorde (1934-1992) 156
  • Catharine Mackinnon (1946-) 163
  • Olga Madar (1915-1996) 174
  • Wilma Mankiller (1945-) 181
  • Del Martin (1921-) 188
  • Kate Millett (1934- ) 194
  • CherrÍe Moraga (1952- ) 201
  • Robin Morgan (1941-) 206
  • Pauli Murray (1910-1985) 213
  • Eleanor Holmes Norton (1937-) 218
  • Alice Paul (1885-1977) 223
  • Anna Quindlen (1952-) 231
  • Adrienne Rich (1929-) 238
  • Faith Ringgold (1930-) 245
  • Rosemary Ruether (1936-) 251
  • Joanna Russ (1937-) 257
  • Patricia Schroeder (1940-) 264
  • Eleanor Smeal (1939-) 271
  • Barbara Smith (1946-) 279
  • Gloria Steinem (1934-) 283
  • Margo St. James (1937-) 290
  • Alice Walker (1944- ) 297
  • Rebecca Walker (1969-) 305
  • Michele Wallace (1952-) 311
  • Sarah Weddington (1945-) 317
  • Ellen Willis (1941-) 327
  • Selected Bibliography 335
  • Index 341
  • About the Editor and Contributors 355
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