Economic Development Programs for Cities, Counties, and Towns

By John M. Levy | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
The questionnaire was mailed to 320 randomly chosen development agency directors listed in the 1989 Economic Development Directory in the October 1988 issue of Area Development. The survey excluded chambers of commerce, consultants, and specialized organizations such as port authorities and free trade zones. The usable response rate was approximately 35 percent.
2
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 108th edition, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1988, table 1241. For further statistics on manufacturing, see either Census of Manufacturing, published by the Bureau of the Census in years ending in 2 and 7, or the Annual Survey of Manufacturing, also published by the Bureau of the Census.
3
There is a very large literature on this subject. See Dennis S. Tosh et al., "Industrial Site Selection Criteria: Are Economic Developers, Manufacturers and Industrial Real Estate Brokers Operating on the Same Wavelength"," Economic Development Review, Fall 1988, pp. 62-67, and Gordon D. Hack, "Location Trends: 1958-88"," Area Development, October 1988, p. 12. See also Roger W. Schmenner, Making Business Location Decisions, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982; Daryll A. Hellman et al., State Financial Incentives to Industry, Lexington Books D.C. Heath, Lexington, Mass., 1976. For a good review of older literature, see George A. Reigeluth and Harold Wolman, "The Determinants and Implications of Communities' Changing Competitive Advantage: A Review of Literature"," Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., 1979 (working paper no. 1264-03).
4
This is a very casual estimate based on the fact that at present, value added by manufacturing in the United States is in the $1 trillion range and the total value of shipments by U.S. manufacturing firms is in the $2 trillion range. Detailed statistics on value added and value of shipments by industry can be found in the Annual Survey of Manufacturing.
5
The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, which was targeted to the disadvantaged, was ended in 1983 and replaced by the Jobs Training and Partnership Act (JTPA), jointly introduced by Senators Edward Kennedy and Dan Quayle. The JTPA lacks the public-sector employment components of CETA and is funded at much lower levels than was CETA in its heyday. JTPA is discussed in Ch. 11.

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Economic Development Programs for Cities, Counties, and Towns
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - The Political Context of Economic Development 11
  • 3 - Organization and Personnel 19
  • 4 - Recent Economic Changes 25
  • 5 - The Role of the States 39
  • 6 - What Does and Does Not Work 47
  • Notes 61
  • 7 - Reasonable Expectations 63
  • 8 - Public Relations, Advertising, and Marketing 67
  • 9 - Assessing Economic Development Potential 83
  • 10 - Development Planning 103
  • 11 - Development Financing 117
  • 12 - Labor Market and Fiscal Impacts 131
  • 13 - Local Economic Development in the National Picture 151
  • Appendix. Economics for the Economic Developer 165
  • Bibliography 169
  • Index 171
  • About the Author 175
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