CADRE PARTY . A cadre type of party is one that is characterized by a small core group of activists who recruit candidates, raise money to maintain the party, and provide services to the candidates. American political parties are generally considered cadre parties in contrast to the mass membership parties that existed in Europe. See:MASS MEMBERSHIP PARTIES.
Reference: Leon D. Epstein, Political Parties in the American Mold ( Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986).
CAMPAIGN is an organized effort to persuade voters to vote for or against a particular candidate, party, or ballot issue. A campaign usually has a structured organization reflecting highly technical skills and specialization, such as polling, research, volunteer coordination, fund-raising, press relations, and media development. The political campaigns of the late twentieth century are candidatecentered and emphasize electronic media, which requires a tremendous amount of money. Political campaigns in the United States last for months, and presidential campaigns often last years. Because it is so expensive to hire qualified campaign specialists and fund an electronic media campaign, the contemporary candidates spend most of their time fund-raising. See:CAMPAIGN MANAGER.
Reference: Gerald M. Pomper, "Campaigning: The Art and Science of Politics", Polity, Vol. 2 (Summer 1970).
CAMPAIGN LITERATURE is all of the material printed for a political campaign. It usually highlights the qualities of the candidate. If it is party literature it will highlight a number of candidates. The literature gives information about