Psychology and Professional Practice: The Interface of Psychology and the Law

By Francis R. J. Fields; Rudy J. Horwitz | Go to book overview

5

JOSEPH G. ROSENFELD


The School Psychologist

One can say that the field of school psychology dates back to the beginning of the psychological testing movement. This originated in Germany in the psychophysics laboratories of Ernst H. Weber in 1834, Gustav T. Fechner in 1860, and Wilhelm Wundt in 1879.

There have been two major areas in the field of psychology that have also had great influence on school psychology. One of the areas has been in learning theory, a major contribution of the experimental psychologist. Prominent among the experimental psychologists was W. L. Thorndike. His work in animal learning and in the development of psychological tests is frequently credited with providing definition for the emerging field of educational psychology in this country. John B. Watson, founder of "behaviorism," influenced classroom procedures and child-raising methods throughout the nation. In many ways, Watson had a profound effect on American educational theory. Watson promoted child-raising and educational practices based on a pragmatic theory concerning how learning and behavioral modifications occur. He made parents and teachers alike aware of the effect of controlled learning conditions on behavior and its use in behavior modification. Another prominent American psychologist who has contributed markedly to educational practices is B. F. Skinner. His theories are the basis of most behavioral modification approaches used in the United States. He is also one of the major advocates of the teaching machine. He felt that the instructional results in the past were too slow to satisfy learning requirements based on stimulus response theory. With machine teaching a student gets immediate feedback in terms of the correctness of his or her response. In this controlled situation, the student does not repeat mistakes and is able to identify errors more quickly. Skinner also feels that the teaching machines are uniquely adapted to the individual learner in a way not possible for a teacher in a large class.

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Psychology and Professional Practice: The Interface of Psychology and the Law
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • New Titles from Quorum Books ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Bibliography xiii
  • 1: Independent Practice of Psychology 3
  • Conclusion 15
  • Bibliography 15
  • 2: Testing: The Armamentarium of Psychology 17
  • Summary and Concluding Remarks 30
  • Bibliography 31
  • 3: The Clinical Psychologist 33
  • Bibliography 55
  • 4: The Counseling Psychologist 59
  • Summary and Conclusions 69
  • 5: The School Psychologist 73
  • Cases Cited 90
  • Bibliography 90
  • 6: Ethical and Legal Issues in Community Psychology 93
  • Introduction 93
  • Bibliography 111
  • 7: The Clinical Neuropsychologist 113
  • 8: The Psychologist in the Employee Assistance Program Consortium 133
  • Bibliography 144
  • 9: A Judge Views Psychology 147
  • Notes 168
  • 10: A Jurist's Legal Opinion Regarding Practical Legal Issues Facing the Psychologist Practitioner 179
  • Appendix A Pennsylvania's Licensure Statute 187
  • Appendix B Ethical Principles of Psychologists 197
  • Index 205
  • About the Editors and Contributors 208
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