State Building and Democratization in Africa: Faith, Hope, and Realities

By Kidane Mengisteab; Cyril Daddieh | Go to book overview

Chapter 8
Civil Society, Democratization, and State Building in Kenya and Tanzania

JULIUS E. NYANG'ORO


INTRODUCTION

Africa has experienced significant changes in its political landscape since the beginning of the 1990s decade. Political changes in Africa are part of a global movement toward political liberalization. Not only have authoritarian regimes in Eastern Europe collapsed, but we have also witnessed almost universal liberalization of political systems in Latin America, especially in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. These countries were better known for their "bureaucratic authoritarianism" in earlier decades than for their "democratic" practice. 1 In Africa, most of the authoritarian regimes -- military or one-party systems -- have liberalized, partly in response to popular protests but also as a result of international forces.

Given these developments, we can be hopeful that the crude authoritarianism of most states in Africa of the last three decades is a thing of the past and that politics on the continent will be practiced differently from now on. The initial basis for this hope is that even in the most authoritarian states of the past -- Zaire, Togo, Malawi, and so on -- the nature of the political discourse has fundamentally changed. In Zaire, for example, even though President Mobutu Sese Seko continues to manipulate the transition to pluralism in his country, he now must take into account an existing, legitimate opposition that is no longer operating exclusively underground. Mobutu's leadership is openly challenged, although the lives of opposition leaders are constantly in danger due to harassment by Mobutu's state agents. 2

Similarly in Togo, despite President Eyadema's initial manipulation of the national conference and the apparent disarray in the ranks of the opposition, Togo's politics is now firmly being discussed in terms of pluralism and power

-183-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
State Building and Democratization in Africa: Faith, Hope, and Realities
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 295

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.