VIII
OFF TO THE WARS

It was April of 1928. The Nationalist armies, under General Chiang Kai-shek, were pushing steadily northward along the railway connecting Tientsin and Pukow, the southern terminus on the north bank of the Yangtsze opposite Nanking. The forces of the Northern Coalition, commanded in the field by Marshals Sun Chuan-fang, Chang Tsung-chang, the Shantung satrap, and young Chang Hsueh-liang, son of Chang Tsolin, the warlord of Manchuria, were falling back continuously.

Then, abruptly, the struggle ceased to be just a Chinese civil war, and developed the possibilities of becoming a real international clash. This new development was caused by Japan, when on April 20th the Chinese Foreign Office received Tokyo's official notification that three companies of Japanese infantry were being sent southward by rail to Tsinan from the Japanese Concession garrison at Tientsin, and that another 5,000 Japanese troops were being sent from Japan by sea, would land at the port of Tsingtao and would then occupy the 280-mile railway connecting Tsingtao and Tsinan, the Shantung provincial capital. China at once protested this troop movement, calling it a violation of the country's sovereign rights.

The legal basis for Japan's dispatch of armed troops to Shantung went far back to the year 1898, when several German missionaries were murdered in the interior portion of the province. Germany, eager for naval and military strongholds in the Far East, and desirous of competing with Russia, Britain, and France

-73-

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My Life in China, 1926-1941
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Book I. China Awakes 3
  • Book I. China Awakes 3
  • II - Imperialist Outpost 10
  • III - Chungking's Origins 16
  • IV - Summer of Discontent 35
  • V - Peking, Old Style 43
  • VI - A Plum Lands in My Lap 55
  • VII - Martial Interlude 66
  • VIII - Off to the Wars 73
  • IX - The Life That Was 89
  • X - Officially an Outcast 102
  • XI - A Truce and a Perfidy 120
  • XII - Intolerance and Deception 138
  • Book Ii. Japan Marches 147
  • Book Ii. Japan Marches 147
  • II - Pattern for Conquest 161
  • III - Dirty Yen and Itching Palms 174
  • IV - Thirty-Five Thousand Die 186
  • V - The Years Between 194
  • VI - Trying Conspiracy First 212
  • VII - Summer, 1936 217
  • VIII - Betrayal and Triumph 226
  • IX - Trouble with Moscow 236
  • X - Chiang Kai-Shek Listened 242
  • XI - Terror and Death 257
  • XII - Japan's Worst "Bad Boy" 268
  • XIII - The Heavy Hand of Power 286
  • XIV - Ominous Interlude 294
  • Book Iii. the World at War 301
  • Book Iii. the World at War 301
  • II - Faint Hope for Peace 311
  • III - Another Feeler 320
  • IV - The Nipps Get Nasty 324
  • V - Confusion in High Places 332
  • VI - Terrorism 336
  • VII - Plot and Counterplot 348
  • VIII - Disillusion and Dismay 354
  • IX - China for the Chinese 363
  • X - Europe Will Be Easy, by Comparison 375
  • Epilogue 383
  • Index 391
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