American Trade Policy: 1923-1995

By Edward S. Kaplan | Go to book overview

Preface

The Clinton administration's trade policy in the 1990s appears more protectionist oriented than that of any other president since Herbert Hoover more than sixty-five years ago. Clinton's U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor has threatened any country that practices unfair trade with trade sanctions in the form of 100 percent tariff increases that would assure that the foreign goods affected will be unsalable in the United States. Japan, in the spring of 1995, already has been chosen as a Clinton administration target, and the Japanese trade officials have complained bitterly to the new World Trade Organization (WTO), the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that the United States is practicing managed trade. Both the European Union (EU) and the Japanese government have declared that U.S. trade policy in 1995 has come full circle since the protectionist 1920s.

It is the purpose of this book to trace the history of American trade policy beginning in 1923 and concluding in 1995 and to show how that policy has evolved. Beginning in the 1920s, during the administrations of Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, the United States maintained a system of high protective tariffs as witnessed by both the Fordney-McCumber and the Hawley-Smoot tariffs in 1922 and 1930, respectively. However, protectionism was denounced with the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt to the presidency in 1932 and his appointment of Cordell Hull as secretary of state. Congress passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act in 1934, authorizing the reduction of tariff rates up to 50 percent by means of bilateral trade agreements with foreign nations. These agreements contained an unconditional most-favored-nation clause so that all concessions made by either party to third countries would freely apply to the trade of the other party to an agreement.

After World War II the United States became part of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, a liberal, multilateral system of world trade. The American government worked with foreign nations to accord nondiscriminatory most-favored- nation treatment to all other members with respect to import and export duties,

-ix-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
American Trade Policy: 1923-1995
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Economics and Economic History ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Background to the Hawley-Smoot Tariff 1
  • Notes 18
  • 2 - The Hawley-Smoot Tariff 38
  • 3 - The Building of a Liberal Trade Policy 43
  • Notes 60
  • 4 - The Trade Expansion Act and the Kennedy Round 65
  • Notes 86
  • 5 - The Trade Reform Act and the Tokyo Round 89
  • Notes 108
  • 6 - Fair Trade and the Uruguay Round 113
  • Notes 132
  • 7 - The North American Free Trade Agreement 137
  • Notes 156
  • 8 - A Return to Unilateralism 159
  • Notes 167
  • Bibliography 169
  • Index 173
  • About the Author 177
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 182

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.