American Trade Policy: 1923-1995

By Edward S. Kaplan | Go to book overview

exports, but also in such services as television programming. For example, American cable television such as Turner Network Television has offices in England and sells programming to the EU. American producers increased revenues from television sales by six times in the 1980s. In 1993, 40 percent of U.S. investment abroad and 25 percent of all American exports went to EU nations. American imports from the EU are about 20 percent of its total imports. Half the world's trade is conducted in the EU. The combined GDP of all its members makes it the second-largest economic bloc in the world, behind North America. The EU in 1993 had a population of 345 million people, the second-largest market in population next to India. It has 228 of the top 1,000 companies in the world, behind Japan with 310 and the United States with 345. 93

In 1960 the EU shocked the United States by abandoning the item-by-item bargaining approach. Item-by-item bargaining refers to tariff negotiations centered on specific products as opposed to across-the-board negotiations centered on linear percentage reductions in entire tariff schedules for all parties. The United States had followed the principal-supplier concept by offering concessions in negotiations with another country only on products for which that country was the major supplier to the United States. When the EU proposed in the Dillon Round in 1961- 1962 to reduce its common external tariff by a uniform 20 percent, American negotiators were unprepared to take action. They believed that across-the-board negotiations were inconsistent with the congressional mandate of item-by-item bargaining. When the Kennedy administration proposed a further round of tariff negotiations in 1962, it first sent the draft Trade Expansion Act to Congress both authorizing a 50 percent reduction in most tariffs and implicitly sanctioning across- the board-negotiations. The administration believed that with the passage of this act, the United States would abandon the item-by-item method and implement the linear method of tariff negotiations. The Trade Expansion Act and the Kennedy Round will be discussed in detail in the next chapter. 94


NOTES
1.
See Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, 2 vols. ( New York: Macmillan Company, 1948), vol. 1, pp. 352-365.
2.
Ibid. 1:81.
3.
Ibid. 1:152.
4.
Joseph M. Jones, Tariff Retaliation: Repercussions of the Hawley-Smoot Bill ( Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934), p. 301.
5.
Ibid., p. 303; Hull, Memoirs 1:356.
6.
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., The Coming of the New Deal ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958), p. 210.
7.
Ibid; Hull, Memoirs 1:251.
8.
Hull, Memoirs 1:248; Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, p. 210.
9.
William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal ( New York: Harper and Row, 1963), pp. 203-204.
10.
Hull, Memoirs 1:359.
11.
Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal, p. 254.

-60-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
American Trade Policy: 1923-1995
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Economics and Economic History ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Background to the Hawley-Smoot Tariff 1
  • Notes 18
  • 2 - The Hawley-Smoot Tariff 38
  • 3 - The Building of a Liberal Trade Policy 43
  • Notes 60
  • 4 - The Trade Expansion Act and the Kennedy Round 65
  • Notes 86
  • 5 - The Trade Reform Act and the Tokyo Round 89
  • Notes 108
  • 6 - Fair Trade and the Uruguay Round 113
  • Notes 132
  • 7 - The North American Free Trade Agreement 137
  • Notes 156
  • 8 - A Return to Unilateralism 159
  • Notes 167
  • Bibliography 169
  • Index 173
  • About the Author 177
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 182

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.