The Aims and Purposes of England
ENGLAND'S RELATIONS with the United States were outlined to the view of Americans against a background of hostility, whose steady development after 1815 has already been traced. Their interpretation of events was conditioned by it, and their estimates of English policy were colored accordingly.
There was little in the course of Anglo-American relations following the war of 1812 which could counteract the bad effect of this spiritual antagonism. In the liquidation of the problems which the treaty of Ghent had left unsettled, irritating and provoking legalistic arguments dominated diplomacy.1 The disarmament of the Great Lakes and the determination of the boundary to the Rocky Mountains hardly offset the influence of trade wars, controversies over the fisheries, the difficulties of the Northeast boundary settlement, and unsettled claims. In the course of the nineteenth century it became clear that peaceful and fairly satisfactory agreements were to be reached upon all these problems, but this was far from obvious in the years 1815-1823.
In the wider field of world politics, there was much to cause Americans to regard England with suspicion and alarm. The tremendous consolidation and extension of her naval power throughout. the world appeared to constitute a definite threat to other commercial nations.2 There____________________