The Foreign Service of the United States

By Tracy Hollingsworth Lay; Charles Evans Hughes | Go to book overview

CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I. FOREIGN SERVICE DEVELOPMENT
1 Scope of this book; Periods of diplomatic importance; The early task of diplomacy; The use of trained diplomatists; Foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation; Birth of the Diplomatic Service; Examples of early diplomatic action; Birth of the Consular Service; The first consular law; The beginning of the spoils system; The Livingston report; Act of March 1, 1855; Act of August 18, 1856; Consular pupils; Fees and presidential regulations; A period of public indifference; Continuance of the spoils system; The grade of ambassador established; Attempt to establish merit system; Act of April 5, 1906; The merit system achieved; The Board of Examiners; The examination; Appointment and promotion; Spoils system condemned by President Roosevelt; Business interests support merit system; The merit system in the Diplomatic Service; The Board of Examiners; The examination; Determination of ratings; The office of Director of the Consular Service; Clamor for an adequate consular law; Act of February 5, 1915; Classification of officers; Promotions and transfers; Assignment to the Department of State; Minor provisions; The Foreign Service in post war conditions; The state of international affairs; War surprised the United States; Reorganization recommended; The original Rogers bill; Statement of Honorable Wilbur J. Carr
.
II. THE CONTROL OF FOREIGN RELATIONS
40 The Constitution; Powers of the President and the Senate; Powers of Congress; Treaties the supreme law of the land; Constitutional provisions meager; The President; The presidential initiative; Dual responsibility of the President; Appointments; The use of secret agents; The secret fund; Conflicts of power; The Senate; Secret sessions; A point of criticism; Treaties and the Senate; An early incident; Appointments; The United States an example; Congress; Power to declare war; The termination of war; Termination of war with Germany; Recognition of foreign governments; Attempts at congressional recognition; International congresses and conferences; Appointments; Act of 1855 construed; The appointment of ambassadors; Authorization of Congress required; Limitations by mutual consent; Executive agreements; Congress and foreign policy; The policy of limiting armament; The immigration policy; Senatorial declaration of policy; The declarations of political parties
.

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