THE "HEART" NEUROSES
Three types of partly psychosomatic neuroses known to the Mohave are designated by terms containing the word "heart" (hi: wa), presumably because the Mohave think of the heart not only as an organ, but also as the seat of emotions. It may be suggested, in passing, that the widespread, though not universal, tendency to think of the heart as connected with the emotions may be due to the fact that certain persons react to emotional stress with precordial anxiety, tachycardia, and other disturbances of the cardiovascular system, just as other people react to emotional stress, e. g., with disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.76 and choleric (=yellow bile, gastrointestinal tract). The occurrence of the latter reaction pattern of the autonomous nervous system to emotional stress among the Mohave is probably responsible for the fact that a series of psychosomatic illnesses are grouped together under the general heading of hiwey lak (anus pain) (pt. 4, pp. 150-175).
A further attribute of the heart is conscience. Thus, the dictates of a man's better self (ego-ideal, rather than super-ego) are denoted by the term hi:wantc kinyai:m (heart does) or hi: wantc hidhu: m, or hi: wantc haniym, all of which can be freely translated as "the heart does" or "the heart says" or "the dictates of the heart"--i. e., man's better nature. Since, unlike the Chinese ( Devereux, 1944 a) etc., the Mohave believe human nature to be good, rather than inherently corrupt, if one but listens to one's heart, one is impelled to do good deeds. Thus Case 101 shows that when a bewitched person became ill, the victim's family immediately asked the witch to perform a cure, because they hoped that the witch would yield to his hi: wantc kinyai:m, i. e., that he would follow the dictates of his heart or conscience.
There appear to be three main types of "heart neuroses"--i. e., three types of emotional stress to which people react, at least in principle, with their hearts. Of course, in reality the cases cited did____________________