Socialism Is Not Racialism, No. 2, 1970
HON. JULIUS K. NYERERE. President, United Republic of Tanzania
The following article first appeared as an appendix to the original Arusha Declaration, which setforth principles for building socialism in Tanzania.
The Arusha Declaration and the actions relating to public ownership were all concerned with ensuring that we can build socialism in our country. The nationalization and the taking of controlling interest in many firms were a necessary part of our determination to organize our society in such a way that our efforts benefit all our people and that there is no exploitation of one man by another.
Yet these actions do not in themselves create socialism. They are necessary to it, but as the Arusha Declaration states, they could also be the basis for fascism -- in other words, for the oppressive extreme of capitalism. For the words with which I began my pamphlet "Ujamaa" in 1962 remain valid; socialism is an attitude of mind. The basis of socialism is a belief in the oneness of man and the common historical destiny of mankind. Its basis, in other words, is human equality.