Bhubaneswar (bōōbänĕ´swär), city (1991 pop. 411,542), capital of Odisha (Orissa) state, E central India, on a distributary of the Mahanadi River. A small town before it became the capital in 1948, it is a modern administrative center and the seat of Utkal Univ. and Orissa Univ. of Agriculture and Technology. There are rolling mills and wire-cable works; the city has an airport. Settlements date back to the reign of Asoka (3d cent. BC). Bhubaneswar, a religious center, once had c.7,000 shrines around its sacred lake; the remains of c.500 still stand, displaying many styles of Hindu and Buddhist art and architecture. Lingaraja temple is the most famous. The city was devastated by a cyclone in Oct., 1999.