Karl Böhm, 1894–1981, Austrian conductor. He studied with the musicologist Eusebius Mandyczewski and took a law degree before turning to conducting. After successful appearances with leading German orchestras, he was appointed director of the Vienna State Opera, a position he held from 1943 to 1945 and from 1954 to 1956. In 1956, Böhm gave his first American performance, conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He subsequently appeared with many European and American orchestras, including the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic. He showed a preference for the works of Mozart and Richard Strauss.