Chissano, Joaquim Alberto
Joaquim Alberto Chissano, 1939–, Mozambican political leader. A founding member of the Mozambican Liberation Front (Frelimo), he rose to become a major general in the organization, and after Mozambique became independent from Portugal he served as foreign minister in President Samora Machel's government. After Machel's death in 1986, Chissano succeeded him as president and Frelimo party leader. Chissano moved Mozambique toward a market economy, secured (1992) an end to the nation's post-independence civil war with Renamo (see Mozambique), and oversaw the establishment of a multiparty democracy. Chissano was reelected in multiparty contests in 1994 and 1999 and retired as president and then as party leader in 2005. In 2006 he was appointed a UN special envoy, charged with helping end the insurgency in N Uganda. Chissano won the first Mo Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership in 2007.