Lion Feuchtwanger (lē´ōn foikht´väng-ər), 1884–1958, German novelist. A pacifist, socialist, and friend of both Thomas Mann and Bertolt Brecht, he fled Germany for France in 1933; he was later arrested but dramatically escaped to the United States in 1940. Often concerned with Jewish history, his works are also noted for their lucid analyses of contemporary problems. His many novels include the trilogy Josephus (1923–42) and Success (1929, tr. 1930).