Malcolm Fraser (John Malcolm Fraser), 1930–2015, Australian political leader and prime minister (1975–83). A graduate of Oxford (1952), he entered the Australian parliament as a Liberal member in 1955. Under a Liberal–National Country coalition he held a number of cabinet positions, serving as minister of the army (1966–68), education and science (1968–69), and defense (1969–71). He became leader of the coalition in 1975 in oppostion, and prime minister after the Labor government of Gough Whitlam was dismissed. Fraser's generally conservative policies included cutting government spending and taxes, discouraging higher wages, increasing defense spending, and promoting a stronger ANZUS alliance, but he also supported policies that aided indigenous Australians and immigrants. He was reelected in 1977 and 1980, retiring after the 1983 victory of the Labor party under Bob Hawke.