Göteborg (yötəbôr´yə) or Gothenburg (gŏth´ənbûrg´, gŏt´ən–), city (1990 pop. 574,433), capital of Göteborg och Bohus co., SW Sweden, on the Kattegat at the mouth of the Göta älv. It is Sweden's most important seaport and its second largest city; it is also a major commercial and industrial center and a rail junction. It is serviced by the Torslanda Airport, which has international flights. Manufactures include cameras, paper products, fabricated metal products, motor vehicles, processed food, mineral oils, and refined petroleum. There are large shipyards and fisheries in the city. Göteborg has two universities; several academies, museums, and parks; an opera house; and one of the country's largest sports stadiums.
Göteborg was founded in 1604 by Charles IX, but was soon after destroyed by the Danes in the Kalmar War. It was rebuilt by Gustavus II in 1619 and quickly became a major commercial center with large colonies of Dutch and English merchants. The Swedish East India Company was founded at Göteborg in 1731. The city's port was expanded in the mid-18th cent.; in the early 20th cent. it became the terminus of an important transatlantic shipping service. In 1865 the Göteborg licensing system for the control of liquor sales (see liquor laws) was originated there.