Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (äNtwän´ pĕrənō´ də gräNvĕl´), 1517–86, statesman in the service of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and of King Philip II of Spain; cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was born at Besançon (then an imperial city), the son of Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle, whom he succeeded as imperial councillor. The younger Granvelle negotiated the marriage of the Infante Philip (later Philip II) to Queen Mary I of England. After Philip's accession (1556) he became president of the council of state under Margaret of Parma, regent of the Netherlands. He was, in effect, governor and incurred the hostility of all Dutch and Flemish patriots (Protestants and Catholics alike) by retaining Spanish troops and increasing religious persecution. William the Silent and the counts Egmont and Hoorn headed the opposition. In 1564, Granvelle was advised by Philip II to retire to Besançon. Granvelle subsequently served Philip as viceroy of Naples and adviser on Italian affairs. He was recalled as councillor to Philip in 1579 but lost influence after 1582.