Anatoly Karpov (ənŭtôl´yē kär´pôf), 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match. He successfully defended (1978, 1981) his title against Viktor Korchnoi but lost (1985) to Garry Kasparov. Karpov regained (1993) the International Chess Federation (FIDE) championship in a playoff after Kasparov formed a rival association and was expelled from the federation. Karpov retained the FIDE championship after defeating Viswanathan Anand in 1998. Disputes with the sponsoring organization prompted Karpov to refuse to participate in a tournament the following year, and he was stripped of his FIDE championship. From 2005 he served as a member of Russia's Civic Chamber; he was elected to the State Duma in 2011, representing the Tyumen region.