Lasker Awards, prizes created in 1945 by the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation (est. 1942) in recognition of achievement in several areas of medicine. Among the most prestigious honors in the field of biomedical research, the Lasker Awards are presented to scientists, physicians, and public servants from around the world whose work has made major advances in the understanding, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. They are given in four main areas: basic medical research, clinical medical research, special achievement, and public service. Sometimes called "America's Nobels," the Lasker Awards have frequently proved a preview of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, and since the beginning of the awards many Lasker winners have gone on to receive a Nobel Prize.