Stanisław Lem (stän´Ĭswäf´ lĕm), 1921–2006, Polish science-fiction writer. A doctor by training, Lem began his writing career as a poet before turning to the novel. In his many science-fiction works, including Return from the Stars (1961; tr. 1973), Solaris (1961; tr. 1982; films, 1972, 2002), His Master's Voice (1968, tr. 1983), and The Futurological Congress (1971, tr. 1974), he combines irony and grotesque humor with profound social, psychological, and philosophical analyses that show a concern for the moral implications of modern science and technology. Lem was also the author of notable essays concerning science fiction, including the collection Microworlds (1984).