Lucknow or Lakhnau (both: lŭk´nou), city (1991 pop. 1,669,204), capital of Uttar Pradesh state, N central India, on the Gomati River. An educational and cultural center, it has varied industries, including food processing, railroad shops, and handicrafts. The city is a major transportation hub and has an important agricultural market. It was the capital of the kingdom of Oudh (1775–1856) and then of Oudh prov. It became the capital of the United Provinces when Agra and Oudh merged in 1877. The most notable architectural structure is the Imambara [mausoleum] of Asuf-ad-Daula, Oudh's greatest king. During the Indian Mutiny, the British garrison in Lucknow suffered heavy casualties during a siege (June–Nov., 1857). Although the siege was broken, the British evacuated the city (Nov.); a year later, when they regained control of India, they reentered. Lucknow was a focus of the movement (1942–47) for an independent Pakistan.