Margaret Maid of Norway
Margaret Maid of Norway, 1283–90, queen of Scotland (1286–90), daughter of Eric II of Norway and granddaughter of Alexander III of Scotland. In 1284 the nobles of Scotland recognized the infant Norwegian princess as heiress presumptive to the Scottish throne, and on Alexander III's death Margaret became queen under a regency. Edward I of England arranged a marriage for her with his eldest son, Edward, and this union was agreed to by the Scots in the Treaty of Birgham (1290), which stipulated that Scotland would remain independent. Margaret, however, died on the voyage from Norway to Scotland. The resultant dispute over the succession gave Edward I an opportunity to try to subjugate Scotland.